The platform I'm using is a Virtual Machine CentOS 7 and I've already downloaded Splunk Enterprise using the wget command. My question now is where does the Splunk Enterprise file go? It's 300+MB worth of data and I don't want to have to re-download it again on different machines. Does that mean that if I download via the command line it becomes exclusive to that machine only or is there any way for me to 'get' that downloaded Splunk Enterprise file and use it for the other machines?
The installer is not exclusive, you can reuse it as many times as needed. The specific things (like splunk_secret) for each machine are generated at installation time and they are transparent to you, no action required
You have a tar.gz or an .rpm with you, so why not keep that file in a orchestration machine to use it later?
Could you have an ansible server that could push the installer to other machines?